Tibialis Posterior Tendon Dysfunction Classification Essay

1. Bare AA, Haddad SL. Tenosynovitis of the posterior tibial tendon. Foot Ankle Clin. 2001;6:37–66. doi: 10.1016/S1083-7515(03)00078-0.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

2. Beals TC, Pomeroy GC, Manoli A., 2nd Posterior tendon insufficiency: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1999;7:112–118.[PubMed]

3. Benthien RA, Parks BG, Guyton GP, Schon LC. Lateral column calcaneal lengthening, flexor digitorum longus transfer, and opening wedge medial cuneiform osteotomy for flexible flatfoot: a biomechanical study. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28:70–77. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2007.0013.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

4. Bluman EM, Myerson MS. Stage IV posterior tibial tendon rupture. Foot Ankle Clin. 2007;12:341–362, viii. [PubMed]

5. Bluman EM, Title CI, Myerson MS. Posterior tibial tendon rupture: a refined classification system. Foot Ankle Clin. 2007;12:233–249, v. [PubMed]

6. Brodsky JW, Baum BS, Pollo FE, Shabat S. Surgical reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon tear in adolescents: report of two cases and review of the literature. Foot Ankle Int. 2005;26:218–223.[PubMed]

7. Coetzee JC, Castro MD. The indications and biomechanical rationale for various hindfoot procedures in the treatment of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction. Foot Ankle Clin. 2003;8:453–459. doi: 10.1016/S1083-7515(03)00038-X.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

8. Deland JT. The adult acquired flatfoot and spring ligament complex: pathology and implications for treatment. Foot Ankle Clin. 2001;6:129–135, vii. [PubMed]

9. Deland JT, Arnoczky SP, Thompson FM. Adult acquired flatfoot deformity at the talonavicular joint: reconstruction of the spring ligament in an in vitro model. Foot Ankle. 1992;13:327–332. doi: 10.1177/107110079201300606.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

10. Ellis SJ, Yu JC, Williams BR, Lee C, Chiu YL, Deland JT. New radiographic parameters assessing forefoot abduction in the adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int. 2009;30:1168–1176. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2009.1168.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

11. Funk DA, Cass JR, Johnson K. Acquired adult flat foot secondary to posterior tibial-tendon pathology. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68:95–102.[PubMed]

12. Gazdag AR, Cracchiolo A., 3rd Rupture of the posterior tibial tendon: evaluation of injury of the spring ligament and clinical assessment of tendon transfer and ligament repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79:675–681. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.79B4.7410.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

13. Haddad SL, Myerson MS, Younger A, Anderson RB, Davis WH, Manoli A., 2nd Symposium: adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int. 2011;32:95–111. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2011.0095.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

14. Hadfield MH, Snyder JW, Liacouras PC, Owen JR, Wayne JS, Adelaar RS. Effects of medializing calcaneal osteotomy on Achilles tendon lengthening and plantar foot pressures. Foot Ankle Int. 2003;24:523–529. doi: 10.1177/107110070302400703.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. Hill K, Saar W, Lee T, Berlet GC. Stage II flatfoot: what fails and why. Foot Ankle Clin. 2003;8:91–104. doi: 10.1016/S1083-7515(03)00008-1.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

16. Johnson KA. Tibialis posterior tendon rupture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983;177:140–147.[PubMed]

17. Johnson KA, Strom DE. Tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989;239:196–206.[PubMed]

18. Kulowski J. Tenovaginitis (tenosynovitis): general discussion and report of one case involving the posterior tibial tendon. J Missouri State Med Assoc. 1936;33:135–137.

19. Mann RA, Thompson FM. Rupture of the posterior tibial tendon causing flatfoot: surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:556–561.[PubMed]

20. Mankey MG. A classification of severity with an analysis of causative problems related to the type of treatment. Foot Ankle Clin. 2003;8:461–471. doi: 10.1016/S1083-7515(03)00124-4.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

21. McCormack AP, Ching RP, Sangeorzan BJ. Biomechanics of procedures used in adult flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Clin. 2001;6:15–23, v. [PubMed]

22. McCormack AP, Niki H, Kiser P, Tencer AF, Sangeorzan BJ. Two reconstructive techniques for flatfoot deformity comparing contact characteristics of the hindfoot joints. Foot Ankle Int. 1998;19:452–461. doi: 10.1177/107110079801900706.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

23. Mueller TJ. Ruptures and lacerations of the tibialis posterior tendon. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1984;74:109–119. doi: 10.7547/87507315-74-3-109.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

24. Myerson MS. Adult acquired flatfoot deformity: treatment of dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon. Instr Course Lect. 1997;46:393–405.[PubMed]

25. Parsons S, Naim S, Richards PJ, McBride D. Correction and prevention of deformity in type II tibialis posterior dysfunction. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:1025–1032. doi: 10.1007/s11999-009-1122-1.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

26. Pinney SJ, Lin SS. Current concept review: acquired adult flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int. 2006;27:66–75.[PubMed]

27. Raikin SM, Winters BS, Daniel JN. The RAM classification: a novel, systematic approach to the adult-acquired flatfoot. Foot Ankle Clin. 2012;17:169–181. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2012.03.002.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

1. Johnson KA. Tibialis posterior tendon rupture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983:140–7.[PubMed]

2. Arangio GA, Salathe EP. A biomechanical analysis of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and flexor digitorum longus transfer in adult acquired flat foot. Clin Biomech. 2009;24:385–90.[PubMed]

3. Deland JT, de Asla RJ, Sung IH, Ernberg LA, Potter HG. Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency: Which ligaments are involved? Foot Ankle Int. 2005;26:427–35.[PubMed]

4. Kohls-Gatzoulis J, Angel JC, Singh D, Haddad F, Livingstone J, Berry G. Tibialis posterior dysfunction: A common and treatable cause of adult acquired flatfoot. BMJ. 2004;329:1328–33.[PMC free article][PubMed]

5. Myerson MS. Adult acquired flat foot deformity. J Bone Joint Surg. 1996;78A:780–92.

6. Gluck GS, Heckman DS, Parekh SG. Tendon disorders of the foot and ankle, part 3: The posterior tibial tendon. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:2133–44.[PubMed]

7. Kettelkamp DB, Alexander HH. Spontaneous rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:759–64.[PubMed]

8. Monto RR, Moorman CT, 3rd, Mallon WJ, Nunley JA., 3rd Rupture of the posterior tibial tendon associated with closed ankle fracture. Foot Ankle. 1991;11:400–3.[PubMed]

9. Mosier SM, Lucas DR, Pomeroy G, Manoli A., 2nd Pathology of the posterior tibial tendon in posterior tibial tendon insufficiency. Foot Ankle Int. 1998;19:520–4.[PubMed]

10. Khazen G, Khazen C. Tendoscopy in stage I posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Foot Ankle Clin. 2012;17:399–406.[PubMed]

11. Myerson M, Solomon G, Shereff M. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: Its association with seronegative inflammatory disease. Foot Ankle. 1989;9:219–25.[PubMed]

12. Mann RA. Acquired flatfoot in adults. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983:46–51.[PubMed]

13. Deland JT. Adult-acquired flatfoot deformity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16:399–406.[PubMed]

14. Kohls-Gatzoulis J, Woods B, Angel JC, Singh D. The prevalence of symptomatic posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction in women over the age of 40 in England. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2009;15:75–81.[PubMed]

15. Fuhrmann RA, Trommer T, Venbrocks RA. The acquired buckling-flatfoot. A foot deformity due to obesity? Orthopade. 2005;34:682–9.[PubMed]

16. Mann RA, Thompson FM. Rupture of the posterior tibial tendon causing flat foot. Surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:556–61.[PubMed]

17. Funk DA, Cass JR, Johnson KA. Acquired adult flat foot secondary to posterior tibial-tendon pathology. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68:95–102.[PubMed]

18. Kohls-Gatzoulis JA, Singh D. Tibialis posterior dysfunction as a cause of flatfeet in elderly patients. Foot. 2004;14:207–9.

19. Henceroth WD, 2nd, Deyerle WM. The acquired unilateral flatfoot in the adult: Some causative factors. Foot Ankle. 1982;2:304–8.[PubMed]

20. Geideman WM, Johnson JE. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2000;30:68–77.[PubMed]

21. Shereff MJ. Treatment of ruptured posterior tibial tendon with direct repair and FDL tenodesis. Foot Ankle Clin. 1997;2:281–96.

22. Mann RA. Flatfoot in adults. In: Mann RA, Coughlin MJ, editors. Surgery of the Foot and Ankle. 6th ed. Vol. 1. St. Louis, Mo: The CV Mosby Co; 1993. pp. 757–84.

23. Pomeroy GC, Pike RH, Beals TC, Manoli A., 2nd Acquired flatfoot in adults due to dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81:1173–82.[PubMed]

24. Pedowitz WJ, Kovatis P. Flatfoot in the Adult. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1995;3:293–302.[PubMed]

25. Kong A, Van Der Vliet A. Imaging of tibialis posterior dysfunction. Br J Radiol. 2008;81:826–36.[PubMed]

26. Miller SD, Van Holsbeeck M, Boruta PM, Wu KK, Katcherian DA. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior tibial tendon pathology. Foot Ankle Int. 1996;17:555–8.[PubMed]

27. Nazarian LN, Rawool NM, Martin CE, Schweitzer ME. Synovial fluid in the hindfoot and ankle: Detection of amount and distribution with US. Radiology. 1995;197:275–8.[PubMed]

28. Mink JH. Tendons. In: Deutsch AL, Mink JH, Kerr R, editors. MRI of the Foot and Ankle. Vol. 72. New York: Raven Press; 1992. pp. 135–1.

29. Alexander IJ, Johnson KA, Berquist TH. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of disruption of the posterior tibial tendon. Foot Ankle. 1987;8:144–7.[PubMed]

30. Conti SF. Posterior tibial tendon problems in athletes. Orthop Clin North Am. 1994;25:109–21.[PubMed]

31. Burns J, Landorf KB, Ryan MM, Crosbie J, Ouvrier RA. Interventions for the prevention and treatment of pes cavus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;4:CD006154.[PubMed]

32. Williams R. Chronic non-specific tendovaginitis of tibialis posterior. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1963;45:542–5.[PubMed]

33. Wacker JT, Hennessy MS, Saxby TS. Calcaneal osteotomy and transfer of the tendon of flexor digitorum longus for stage-II dysfunction of tibialis posterior. Three- to five-year results. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84:54–8.[PubMed]

34. Miniaci-Coxhead SL, Flemister AS., Jr Office-based management of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity. Med Clin North Am. 2014;98:291–9.[PubMed]

35. Mehta SK, Kellum RB, Robertson GH, Moore AR, Wingerter SA, Tarquinio TA. Radiographic correction of stage III posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with a modified triple arthrodesis. Foot Ankle Int. 2013;34:1355–63.[PubMed]

36. Zaw H, Calder JD. Operative management options for symptomatic flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity: A review. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18:135–42.[PubMed]

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