1. Department of Health. The health of the nation. A strategy for health in England. London: HMSO; 1992.
2. Social Exclusion Unit. Teenage pregnancy. London: Cabinet Office; 1999. http://www.rcgp.org.uk/journal/index.asp (accessed 25 Aug 2004)
3. Office for National Statistics. Birth Statistics (FM1) London: HMSO; Published annually (1969–1996)
4. Wellings K, Kane R. Trends in teenage pregnancy in England and Wales: how can we explain them? J R Soc Med. 1999;92(6):277–82.[PMC free article][PubMed]
5. McLeod A. Changing patterns of teenage pregnancy: population based study of small areas. BMJ. 2001;323(7306):199–203.[PMC free article][PubMed]
6. Smith T. Influence of socioeconomic factors on attaining targets for reducing teenage pregnancies. BMJ. 1993;306(6887):1232–1235.[PMC free article][PubMed]
7. Gabel HD. Teenage pregnancy: an overview. II. Consequences — medical, social and economic. J S C Med Assoc. 1988;84(7):339–341.[PubMed]
8. Dickson R, Fullerton D, Eastwood A, et al. Preventing and reducing the adverse effects of unintended teenage pregnancy. Effective Health Care. 1997;3:1–12.
9. Smith GCS, Pell JP. Teenage pregnancy and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes associated with first and second births: population based retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2001;323(7311):476.[PMC free article][PubMed]
10. Office for National Statistics. Underlying cause of death. London: HMSO; 1997. (Series DH2 no 24.)
11. Grogger J, Bronars S. The socioeconomic consequences of teenage childbearing: findings from a natural experiment. Fam Plann Perspectives. 1993;25(4):156–171. 174.[PubMed]
12. Geronimus AT, Korenman S. The socioeconomic consequences of teen childbearing reconsidered. Quarterly J Econ. 1992;197:1187–1214.
13. Corcoran J. Consequences of adolescent pregnancy/parenting: A review of the literature. Soc Work Health Care. 1998;27(2):49–67.[PubMed]
14. Geronimus AT, Korenman S. Maternal youth or family background? On the health disadvantages of infants with teenage mothers. Am J Epidem. 1993;137(2):213–225.[PubMed]
15. Klerman LV. Adolescent pregnancy and poverty: controversies of the past and lessons for the future. J Adolesc Health. 1993;14(7):553–561.[PubMed]
16. McAnarney ER. Adolescent pregnancy and childbearing: new data, new challenges. Pediatrics. 1985;75(5):973–975.[PubMed]
17. Hoffman SD. Teenage childbearing is not so bad after all … or is it? A review of the new literature. Fam Plann Perspectives. 1998;30(5):236–239. 243.[PubMed]
18. Furstenberg FF, Jr, Crawford AG. Family support: helping teenage mothers to cope. Fam Plann Perspectives. 1978;10(6):322–333.[PubMed]
19. Irvine H, Bradley T, Cupples M, Boohan M. The implications of teenage pregnancy and motherhood for primary health care: unresolved issues. Br J Gen Pract. 1997;47(428):323–326.[PMC free article][PubMed]
20. Smith JA, Jarman M, Osborn M. Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In: Murray M, Chamberlain K, editors. Qualitative health psychology. theories and methods. London: Sage; 1999. pp. 218–240.
21. Smith JA. Semi-structured interviewing and qualitative analysis. In: Smith JA, Harré R, Van Langenhove L, editors. Rethinking methods in psychology. London: Sage; 1995. pp. 9–26.
22. Smith JA. Reconstructing selves: An analysis of discrepancies between women's contemporaneous and retrospective accounts of the transition to motherhood. Br J Psychol. 1994;85(Pt 3):371–392.[PubMed]
23. Osborn M, Smith JA. The personal experience of chronic benign back pain: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Br J Health Psychol. 1998;3:65–83.
24. Smith JA. Identity development during the transition to motherhood: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 1999;17:281–299.
25. Health Education Authority. Young people's experiences of relationships, sex and early parenthood: qualitative research. London: Health Education Authority; 1999.
1. World Health Organization Media Centre 2009Available from: http://www.who.intAccessed October 21, 2011
2. Atuyambe L, Mirembe F, Tumwesigye N, Annika J, Kirumira E, Faxelid E. Adolescent and adult first time mothers’ health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso District, Central Uganda. Reprod Health. 2008;5:13.[PMC free article][PubMed]
3. Hanna B. Negotiating motherhood: the struggles of teenage mothers. J Adv Nurs. 2000;34:456–464.[PubMed]
4. Breheny M, Stephens C. Individual responsibility and social constraint: the construction of adolescent motherhood in social scientific research. Cult Health Sex. 2007;9:333–346.[PubMed]
5. Meadows-Oliver M. Adolescent mothers’ experiences of caring for their children while homeless. J Pediatr Nurs. 2009;24:458–467.[PubMed]
6. McDermott E, Graham H, Hamilton V. Experiences of being a Teenage Mother in the UK: A Report of a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies. Lancaster, UK: Lancaster University; 2004.
7. Singh S. Adolescent childbearing in developing countries: a global review. Stud Fam Plann. 1998;29:117–136.[PubMed]
8. Chase-Lansdale L, Brooks-Gunn J, Paikoff RL. Adolescent mothers: missing links and future promises. Fam Relat. 1991;40:396–403.
9. Aujoulat I, Libion F, Berrewaerts J, Noirhomme-Renard F, Deccache A. Adolescent mothers’ perspectives regarding their own psychosocial and health needs: a qualitative exploratory study in Belgium. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;81:448–453.[PubMed]
10. World Health Organization Fact sheet: Why is giving special attention to adolescents important for achieving Millennium Development Goal Five? 2008Available from: http://www.who.int/making_pregnancy_safer/events/2008/mdg5/adolescent_preg.pdfAccessed October 8, 2013
11. United Nations Population Fund Giving Girls Today and Tomorrow: breaking the cycle of adolescent pregnancy 2007Available from: http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2007/giving_girls.pdfAccessed October 8, 2013
12. Westoff CF. Trends in Marriage and Early Child Bearing in Developing Countries. Calverton, MD: ORC Macro; 2003.
13. Kaufman C, De Wet T, Stadler J. Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood in South Africa. New York, NY: Population Council Inc; 2000.
14. Dlamini LS. MSc Thesis. University of South Africa, Advanced Nursing Sciences Department; 2002. The problems of teenage mothers in the southern HHO-HHO region of Swaziland.
15. Ghana Statistical Service . Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey with Enhanced Malaria Module and Biomarker, 2011, Final Report. Accra, Ghana: Ghana Statistical Service; 2012.
16. GhanaWeb 750,000 teenagers become pregnant in Ghana annually Accra, Ghana: Ghana News Agency; 2013Available from: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=273590Accessed October 8, 2013
17. Aboalik G. Bachelor’s dissertation. Winneba, Ghana: University of Education; 2004. The impact of teenage pregnancy on the education of girls in the Builsa District of Ghana.
18. Adesoka J, Moses SA, Quagraine L, Siaw L. Undergraduate research project. Cape Coast, Ghana: University of Cape Coast; 2008. Incidence, causes and effects of teenage pregnancy among public JHS Girls in the WASSA Amenfi District in the Western Region of Ghana.
19. Ghana Statistical Service . Ghana Demographic and Heath Survey 2008. Accra, Ghana: GSS, GHS, and ICF Macro; 2009.
20. Awusabo-Asare K, Abane A, Kumi-Kyereme A. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ghana: A Synthesis of Research Evidence. Occasional Report No 13. New York, NY: The Alan Guttmacher Institute; 2004.
21. Afenyadu D, Goparaju L. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviour in Dodowa, Ghana. Washington, DC: CEDPA; 2003.
22. Agyei WKA, Biritwum RB, Ashitey AG, Hill RB. Sexual behaviour and contraception among unmarried adolescents and young adults in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions of Ghana. J Biosoc Sci. 2000;32:495–512.[PubMed]
23. Keller ET, Hilton DB, Twumasi-Ankrah K. Teenage pregnancy and motherhood in a Ghanaian community. J Soc Dev Afr. 1999;14:69–84.
24. Henry R, Fayorsey C. Coping with Pregnancy: Experiences of Adolescents in Ga Mashi, Accra. Calverton, MD: ORC Macro; 2004.
25. Burnard P. A method of analyzing interview transcripts in qualitative research. Nurse Educ Today. 1991;11:461–466.[PubMed]
26. Welman JC, Kruger SJ, Mitchell B. Research Methodology. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press; 2002.
27. Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today. 2004;24:105–112.[PubMed]
28. Kondracki NL, Wellman NS, Amundson DR. Content analysis: review of methods and their applications in nutrition education. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2002;34:224–230.[PubMed]
29. DeVito J. How adolescent mothers feel about becoming a parent. J Perinat Educ. 2010;19:25–34.[PMC free article][PubMed]
30. Nystrom K, Ohrling K. Parenthood experiences during the child’s first year: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2004;46:319–330.[PubMed]
31. Clemmens D. Adolescent motherhood: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2003;28:93–99.[PubMed]
32. Kumi-Kyereme A, Awusabo-Asare K, Biddlecom A, Tanle A. Influence of social connectedness, communication and monitoring on adolescent sexual activity in Ghana. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007;11:133–136.[PubMed]
33. Kumi-Kyerme A, Biddlecom AE, Awusabo-Asare K. Adolescents’ Sexual and Reproductive Health: Qualitative Evidence from Ghana. Occasional Report, No 30. New York, NY: The Alan Guttmacher Institute; 2007.