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How to reference an Encyclopedia Entry using the Chicago Manual of Style
The most basic entry for an encyclopedia/dictionary consists of the author name(s), encyclopedia/dictionary name, edition, article title, publication city, publisher, and year published.
Last Name, First Name. Encyclopedia/Dictionary name, Edition ed., s.v. “Article Title.” Publication City: Publisher Name, Year Published.
Smith, John. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. “Internet.” Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009.
The first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma being placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears in the encyclopedia. Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.
For an article written by two or more authors, list them in order as they appear in the encyclopedia. Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate author names with a comma.
Smith, John, and Jane Doe. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. “Internet.” Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009.
Include the encyclopedia/dictionary name in italics, a comma, the encyclopedia/dictionary’s edition, and the abbreviation “ed.” Then include a comma and the abbreviation “s.v.”, and then place the article title, along with a period, in quotation marks.
If the encyclopedia/dictionary’s volume is available and the work does not arrange entries alphabetically, cite the volume after the article title, along with the abbreviation “vols.”
Smith, John. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. “Internet.” 20 vols. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009.
Include the city of publication, a colon, the publisher, a comma, and the year of publication. End the citation with a period.
If the article has no author, begin the citation with the encyclopedia/dictionary name.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. “Internet.” Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009.
If you are citing the entire encyclopedia/dictionary and not a specific article, exclude the following parts of the citation: the authors, the article title, and the “s.v.” abbreviation.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009.
If the article was published online, include the web address of the article, and then place the word “accessed”, along with the date on which you accessed the website (written in the format of “month day, year”) in parentheses. Conclude the citation with a period after the parentheses.
Smith, John. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. “Internet.” Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. http://www.britannica.com/articles/id=2533 (accessed February 21, 2009).
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Reference List: Other Print Sources
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2018-02-21 02:56:19
An Entry in an Encyclopedia
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Work Discussed in a Secondary Source
List the source the work was discussed in:
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation:
In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), ...
Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.
Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)
Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
For information about citing legal sources in your reference list, see the University of Nebraska, Kearney page on Citing Legal Materials in APA Style.
Report From a Private Organization
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.