Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues. The vast country of sprawling archipelago has much to offer, from natural beauty, historical heritage to cultural diversity. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, the direct contribution of travel and tourism to Indonesia's GDP in 2014 was IDR 325,467 billion (US$26,162 million) constituting 3.2% of the total GDP. By 2019, the Indonesian government wants to have doubled this figure to 8 percent of GDP and the number of visitors needs to double to about 20 million. The tourism sector ranked as the 4th largest among goods and services export sectors.
During 2016 about 12.02 million foreign tourists visited Indonesia, which was 15.5% higher than that of 2015. In year 2015, 9.73 million international visitors entered Indonesia, staying in hotels for an average of 7.5 nights and spending an average of US$1,142 per person during their visit, or US$152.22 per person per day. Singapore, Malaysia, China, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017 ranks Indonesia 42nd out of 136 countries overall with Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index score of 4.2. The 2015 report ranks the price competitiveness of Indonesia's tourism sector the 3rd out of 141 countries. It mentions that Indonesia has quite good travel and tourism policy and enabling conditions (ranked 9th). The country also scores quite good on natural and cultural resources (ranked 17th). However, the country scored rather low in infrastructure sub-index (ranked 75th), as some aspect of tourist service infrastructure are underdeveloped.
In 2016, the government was reported to be investing more in tourism development by attracting more foreign investors. The government has given priority to 10 destinations as follows: Borobudur, Central Java; Mandalika, West Nusa Tenggara; Labuan Bajo, East Nusa Tenggara; Bromo-Tengger-Semeru, East Java; Thousand Islands, Jakarta; Toba, North Sumatra; Wakatobi, Southeast Sulawesi; Tanjung Lesung, Banten; Morotai, North Maluku; and Tanjung Kelayang, Belitung. As quoted in The Jakarta Post, the government is aiming for 275 million trips by domestic tourists by end of 2019. The government has also secured commitments from potential investors, totalling US$70 million in the areas of building accommodation, marina and ecotourism facilities in 3 of the 10 areas.
Both nature and culture are major components of Indonesian tourism. The natural heritage can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago of 17,508 islands, 6,000 of them being inhabited, the second longest shoreline in the world (54,716 km) after Canada. It is the worlds largest and most populous country situated only on islands. The beaches in Bali, diving sites in Bunaken, Mount Bromo in East Java, Lake Toba and various national parks in Sumatra are just a few examples of popular scenic destinations. These natural attractions are complemented by a rich cultural heritage that reflects Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. One fact that exemplifies this richness is that 719 living languages are used across the archipelago. The ancient Prambanan and Borobudur temples, Toraja, Yogyakarta, Minangkabau, and of course Bali, with its many Hindu festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.
Tourism in Indonesia is currently overseen by the Indonesian Ministry of Tourism. International tourism campaigns have been focusing largely on its tropical destinations with white sand beaches, blue sky, and cultural attractions. Beach resorts and hotels have been developed in some popular tourist destinations, especially Bali island as the primary destination. At the same time, the integration of cultural affairs and tourism under the scope of the same ministry shows that cultural tourism is considered an integral part of Indonesia's tourism industry, and conversely, that tourism is used to promote and preserve the cultural heritage.
Some of the challenges Indonesia's tourism industry has to face include the development of infrastructure to support tourism across the sprawling archipelago, incursions of the industry into local traditions (adat), and the impact of tourism development on the life of local people. The tourism industry in Indonesia has also faced setbacks due to problems related to security. Since 2002, warnings have been issued by some countries over terrorist threats and ethnic as well as religious conflicts in some areas, significantly reducing the number of foreign visitors for a few years. However, the number of international tourists has bounced back positively since 2007, and reached a new record in 2008 and kept rising since then.
In 2017, based on World Economic Forum survey, Indonesia got a Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index score of 4.2, ranking at the 42nd  (up from 50th in 2015, 70th in 2013, 74th in 2011 and 81st in 2009) of 136 countries. Aspects that need to be improved to move up the rank ladder are; tourism and ICT infrastructures, health and hygiene, environmental sustainability, and affinity for travel and tourism.
In late January 2011 Culture and Tourism Minister Jero Wacik announced that "Wonderful Indonesia" would replace the previous "Visit Indonesia Year" branding used by the nation's official tourism promotional campaigns, although the logo of stylised curves Garuda remain. The minister announced that in 2010, foreign tourists visiting Indonesia touched 7 million and made predictions of 7.7 million in 2011. He was reported as describing the new branding as reflecting "the country's beautiful nature, unique culture, varied food, hospitable people and price competitiveness. "We expect each tourist will spend around US$1,100 and with an optimistic target of 7.7 million arrivals, we will get $8.3 billion," from this. The Culture and Tourism Minister added that 50 percent of the revenue would be generated from about 600 meetings, conventions and exhibitions that were expected to take place in various places throughout the country 2011. He further added in the announcements of January 2011 that his ministry would be promoting the country's attractions under the eco-cultural banner.
Tourist arrivals in Indonesia by nationality (2000-2016)
Source: Statistics Indonesia
|Indonesian Tourism Statistics|
|Year||International visitors||Average stay (days)|
The ten most popular tourist destinations in Indonesia recorded by Central Statistics Agency (BPS) are Bali, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Jakarta, North Sumatra, Lampung, South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, Banten and West Sumatra (which would make it 11 provinces today due to Banten previously having been a part of West Java).
As with most countries, domestic tourists are by far the largest market segment. The biggest movement of domestic tourists is during the annual Eid ul-Fitr, locally known as lebaran. During this period, which is a two-week holiday after the month of fasting during Ramadan, many city-dwelling Muslim Indonesians visit relatives in their home towns. Intercity traffic is at its peak and often an additional surcharge is applied during this time.
Over the five years up to 2006, attention has been focused on generating more domestic tourism. Competition amongst budget airlines has increased the number of domestic air travellers throughout the country. Recently, the Ministry of Labour legislated to create long weekends by combining public holidays that fall close to weekends, except in the case of important religious holidays. During these long weekends, most hotels in popular destinations are fully booked.
Since 2000, on average, there have been five million foreign tourists each year (see table), who spend an average of US$100 per day. With an average visit duration of 9–12 days, Indonesia gains US$4.6 billion of foreign exchange income annually. This makes tourism Indonesia's third most important non-oil–gas source of foreign revenue, after timber and textile products.
After toppled Japan two years ago, China as the world's biggest tourism spenders now toppled Australia to become number three with 30.42 percent increase year-on-year (y-o-y), while totally foreign tourists growth by 10.6 percent y-o-y set to more than 2.9 million. The top countries of origin Q1 2014 data is come from the Asia-Pacific region, with Singapore (15.7 percent), Malaysia (14.0), China (11.0), Australia and Japan among the top countries of origin. The United Kingdom, France, and Germany are the largest sources of European visitors. Although Dutch visitors are at least in part keen to explore the historical relationships, many European visitors are seeking the tropical weather at the beaches in Bali.
Around 59% of all visitors are travelling to Indonesia for holiday, while 38% for business purposes.
In 2012, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council travel and tourism made a total contribution of 8.9% of GDP and supported 8% of total employment in Indonesia.
Indonesia seems to have been a travel destination for centuries. Some panels in Borobudur bas-reliefs depicted drink vendors, warungs (small restaurants), tavern or lodging where people were drinking and dancing. The historical record about travel in Indonesia can be found since 14th century. The Nagarakretagama reported about King Hayam Wuruk's royal travel throughout Majapahit realm in East Java with large numbers of carriages, accompanied by nobles, royal courtiers, officials and servants. Although it seems as stately affair, for some instances the king's journey is somewhat resembles modern day tour, as the king visited numbers of interesting places; from temples such as Palah and Jajawa, to enjoying mountain scenery, having bath in petirtaan (bathing pools) and beach. The 15th-century travelogue of Bujangga Manik, a travelling Hindu scholar-priest from Pakuan Pajajaran, reported about his travel around Java and Bali. Although his travel was a pilgrimage one; visiting temples and sacred places in Java and Bali, sometimes he behaves like a modern-day tourist, such as sitting around fanning his body while enjoying beautiful mountain scenery in Puncak area, look upon Gede volcano that he describes as the highest point around Pakuan Pajajaran (capital of Sunda kingdom).
Initially the tourism, service and hospitality sector in Dutch East Indies were developed to cater the lodging, entertainment and leisure needs of domestic visitors, especially the wealthy Dutch plantation owners and merchants during their stay in the city. In the 19th century, colonial heritage hotels equipped with dance halls, live music and fine dining restaurants were established in Dutch East Indies urban areas, such as Hotel des Indes (est. 1829) in Batavia (now Jakarta), Savoy Homann Hotel (est. 1871) in Bandung, Hotel Oranje (est. 1910) in Surabaya, and Hotel De Boer in Medan. Since the 19th century Dutch East Indies has attracted visitors from The Netherlands. The first national tourism bureau was the Vereeeging Toeristen Verkeer, established by Governor General of Dutch East Indies in early 20th century, and shared their head office in Batavia with Koninklijke Nederlansch Indische Luchtfahrt Maatschapijj (part of KLM) that began to fly from Amsterdam to Batavia in 1929. In 1913, Vereeneging Touristen Verkeer wrote a guide book about tourism places in the Indies. Since then Bali become known to international tourist with foreign tourist arrivals rose for more than 100% in 1927. Much of the international tourism of the 1920s and 1930s was by international visitors on oceanic cruises. The 1930s did see a modest but significant influx of mainly European tourists and longer term stayers to Bali. Many came for the blossoming arts scene in the Ubud area, which was as much a two-way exchange between the Balinese and outsiders as it was an internal phenomenon.
Tourism more or less disappeared during World War II, Indonesian National Revolution and in the early years of the Sukarno era. On 1 July 1947, the government of Republic of Indonesia tried to revive tourism sector in Indonesia by establishing HONET (Hotel National & Tourism) led by R. Tjitpo Ruslan. This new national tourism authority took over many of the colonial heritage hotels in Java and renamed them all "Hotel Merdeka". After Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference in 1949, this tourism authority changed its name to NV HORNET. In 1952 the President formed the Inter-Departement Committee on Tourism Affairs which is responsible for reestablishing Indonesia as the world's tourism destination. National pride and identity in the late 1950s and early 1960s was incorporated into the monumentalism of Sukarno in Jakarta— and this included the development of grand multi-storied international standard hotels and beach resorts, such as Hotel Indonesia in Jakarta (est. 1962), Ambarrukmo Hotel in Yogyakarta (est. 1965), Samudra Beach Hotel in Pelabuhan Ratu beach West Java (est. 1966), and Inna Grand Bali Beach Hotel in Bali (est. 1966). The political and economic instability of the mid-1960s saw tourism decline radically again. Bali, and in particular the small village of Kuta, was however, in the 1960s, an important stopover on the overland hippy trail between Australia and Europe, and a "secret" untouched surf spot.
In the early-to-mid-1970s, high standard hotels and tourist facilities began to appear in Jakarta and Bali. After the completion of Borobudur restoration project in 1982, Yogyakarta become a popular tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali, mostly attracted to this 8th-century Buddhist monument, surrounding ancient Javanese temples and Yogyakarta Sultanatepalace. From this period to the end of the Suharto era, governmental policies of the tourism industry included an array of regulations and developments to encourage increasing numbers of international tourists to both visit Indonesia and stay longer.
Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia
Indonesia has a well-preserved, natural ecosystem with rainforests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres), approximately 2% of which are mangrove systems. One reason why the natural ecosystem in Indonesia is still well-preserved is because only 6,000 islands out of 17,000 are permanently inhabited. Forests on Sumatra and Java are examples of popular tourist destinations. Moreover, Indonesia has one of longest coastlines in the world, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi), with a number of beaches and island resorts, such as those in southern Bali, Lombok,Bintan and Nias Island. However, most of the well-preserved beaches are those in more isolated and less developed areas, such as Karimunjawa, the Togian Islands, and the Banda Islands.
With more than 17,508 islands, Indonesia presents ample diving opportunities. With 20% of the world's coral reefs, over 3,000 different species of fish and 600 coral species, deep water trenches, volcanic sea mounts, World War II wrecks, and an endless variety of macro life, scuba diving in Indonesia is both excellent and inexpensive.Bunaken National Marine Park, at the northern tip of Sulawesi, claims to have seven times more genera of coral than Hawaii, and has more than 70% of all the known fish species of the Indo-Western Pacific. According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat area is the highest recorded on Earth. Moreover, there are over 3,500 species living in Indonesian waters, including sharks, dolphins, manta rays, turtles, morays, cuttlefish, octopus and scorpionfish, compared to 1,500 on the Great Barrier Reef and 600 in the Red Sea.Tulamben Bay in Bali boasts the wreck of the 120 metres (390 ft) US Army commissioned transport vessel, the Liberty. Other popular dive sites on Bali are at Candidasa and Menjangan. Across the Badung Strait from Bali, there are several popular dive sites on Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Penida. Lombok's three Gilis (Gili Air, Gili Meno and Gili Trawangan) are popular as is Bangka. Saronde Island is a very popular spot also in Gorontalo Sulawesi. Some of the most famous diving sites in Indonesia are also the most difficult to reach, with places like Biak off the coast of Papua and the Alor Archipelago among the popular, more remote, destinations for divers.
Surfing is also a popular water activity in Indonesia and the sites are recognised as world class. The well-known sports are mostly located on the southern, Indian Ocean side of Indonesia, for example, the large oceanic surf breaks on southern Java. However, the north coast does not receive the same surf from the Java Sea. Surf breaks can be found all the way along Sumatra, down to Nusa Tenggara, including Aceh, Bali, Banten, Java, Lombok, the Mentawai Islands, and Sumbawa. Although Indonesia has many world-class surfing spots, the majority of surfers come from abroad, especially Australia and United States. However, enthusiasm for local surfing began in Bali and West Java's Pelabuhan Ratu and Pangandaran beach, with most surfers arriving from nearby cities of Jakarta and Bandung. On Bali, there are about 33 surf spots, from West Bali to East Bali including four on the offshore island of Nusa Lembongan. In Sumbawa, Hu'u and Lakey Beach in Cempi Bay are popular surfing spots among surfing enthusiasts. Sumatra is the second island, with the greatest number of surf spots, with 18 altogether. High season for surfing is around May to September with the trade winds blowing from east to south-east. From October to April, winds tend to come from the west to north-west, so the east coast breaks get the offshore winds.
Two well-known surf breaks in Indonesia are the G-Land in the Bay of Grajagan, East Java, and Lagundri Bay at the southern end of Nias island. G-Land was first identified in 1972, when a surfer saw the break from the window of a plane. Since 6 to 8-foot (Hawaiian scale) waves were discovered by surfers at Lagundri Bay in 1975, the island has become famous for surfing worldwide.
Main article: List of national parks of Indonesia
Bogor Botanical Gardens established in 1817, and Cibodas Botanical Gardens established in 1862, are two among the oldest botanical gardens in Asia. With rich collections of tropical plants, these gardens is the centre of botanical research as well as tourism attraction since colonial era.
There are 50 national parks in Indonesia, of which six are World Heritage listed. The largest national parks in Sumatra are the 9,500-square-kilometre (3,700 sq mi) Gunung Leuser National Park, the 13,750-square-kilometre (5,310 sq mi) Kerinci Seblat National Park and the 3,568-square-kilometre (1,378 sq mi) Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, all three recognised as Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Other national parks on the list are Lorentz National Park in Papua, Komodo National Park in the Lesser Sunda Islands, and Ujung Kulon National Park in the west of Java.
To be noticed, different national parks offer different biodiversity, as the natural habitat in Indonesia is divided into two areas by the Wallace line. The Wallaceabiogeographical distinction means the western part of Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan) have the same flora and fauna characteristics as the Asian continent, whilst the remaining eastern part of Indonesia has similarity with the Australian continent.
Many native species such as Sumatran elephants, Sumatran tigers, Sumatran rhinoceros, Javan rhinoceros and orangutans are listed as endangered or critically endangered, and the remaining populations are found in national parks and other conservation areas. Sumatran orangutan can be visited in the Bukit Lawang conservation area, while the Bornean orangutan can be visited in Tanjung Puting national park, Central Kalimantan. The world's largest flower, rafflesia arnoldi, and the tallest flower, titan arum, can be found in Sumatra.
The east side of the Wallacea line offers the most remarkable, rarest, and exotic animals on earth.Birds-of-paradise, locally known as cendrawasih, are plumed birds that can be found among other fauna in Papua New Guinea. The largest bird in Papua is the flightless cassowary. One species of lizard, the Komodo dragon can easily be found on Komodo, located in the Nusa Tenggara lesser islands region. Besides Komodo island, this endangered species can also be found on the islands of Rinca, Padar and Flores.
Main article: List of volcanoes in Indonesia
Hiking and camping in the mountains are popular adventure activities. Some mountains contain ridge rivers, offering rafting activity. Though volcanic mountains can be dangerous, they have become major tourist destinations. Several tourists have died on the slopes of Mount Rinjani, Indonesia's second highest volcano and a popular destination for climbers visiting Lombok in eastern Indonesia. Popular active volcanoes are the 2,329-metre (7,641 ft) high Mount Bromo in the East Java province with its scenic volcanic desert around the crater, the upturned boat shaped Tangkuban Perahu and the volcanic crater Kawah Putih, north and south of Bandung respectively and both with drive-in access up to the crater, the most active volcano in Java, Mount Merapi near Yogyakarta, and the legendary Krakatau with its new caldera known as anak krakatau (the child of Krakatau). Gede Pangrango volcano in West Java is also a popular hiking destination, especially among domestic hikers.
In Sumbawa, Mount Tambora with its historical massive volcanic eruption back in 1815 that produced massive caldera also had gained attention among hikers. In neighbouring island of Flores, the three-coloured volcanic crater-lake of Kelimutu is also hailed as one of Indonesia's natural wonder and had attracted visitors worldwide. Puncak Jaya in the Lorentz National Park, the highest mountain in Indonesia and one of the few mountains with ice caps at the (tropical) equator offers the opportunity of rock climbing. In Sumatra, there are the remains of a supervolcanoeruption that have created the landscape of Lake Toba close to Medan in North Sumatra.
Main article: Culture of Indonesia
Indonesia consists of 300 ethnic groups, spread over a 1.8 million km2 area of 6,000 inhabited islands. This creates a cultural diversity, further compounded by Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic and European colonialist influences. In Bali, where most of Indonesian Hindus live, cultural and religious festivals with Balinese dance-drama performances in Balinese temples are major attractions to foreign tourists.
Despite foreign influences, a diverse array of indigenous traditional cultures is still evident in Indonesia. The indigenous ethnic group of Toraja in South Sulawesi, still has strong tradition that descend from animistic belief even though most of Torajanese is Christian know. One of the most famous Toraja tradition is their funeral rites, Rambu Solo. The Minangkabau ethnic group retain a unique matrilineal culture, despite being devoted Muslims. Other indigenous ethnic groups include the Asmat and Dani in Papua, the Dayak in Kalimantan and the Mentawai in Sumatra, where traditional rituals are still observed.
Cultural tourism also plays a significant part in Yogyakarta, a special province in Indonesia known as centre of classical Javanese fine art and culture. The rise and fall of Buddhist, Hindu, and Islamic kingdoms in Central Java has transformed Yogyakarta into a melting pot of Indonesian culture.
Most major Indonesian cities have their state-owned museums, although most are in modest display. The most complete and comprehensive museum that displaying Indonesian culture and history spanned from prehistoric to colonial era is National Museum of Indonesia located in Jakarta.
For Indonesian and foreign visitors unable to visit all Indonesian provinces, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta provides a comprehensive microcosm of Indonesian culture. Established in 1975 by Tien Suharto, this park displaying museums, separate pavilions with the collections of Indonesian architecture, clothing, dances and traditions all depicted impeccably.
Ancient Hindu and Buddhist temples
Main article: Candi of Indonesia
From the 4th century until the 15th century, Hinduism and Buddhism shaped the culture of Indonesia. Kingdoms rise and fall, such as Medang Kingdom, Srivijaya, Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit. Along the Indonesian classical history of Hindu-Buddhist era, they produced some temples and monuments called candi. The best-preserved Buddhist shrine, which was built during the Sailendra dynasty in the 8th century, is Borobudur temple in Central Java. A giant stone mandala stepped pyramid adorned with bell-shaped stupas, richly adorned with bas-reliefs telling the stories and teachings of Buddha.
A few kilometres to the southeast is the Prambanan complex, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia built during the second Mataram dynasty. The Prambanan temple is dedicated to Trimurti; Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma, three highest gods in Hinduism. Both the Borobudur and the Prambanan temple compounds have been listed in the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1991. Both temple are the largest and the most popular, conveniently accessible from Yogyakarta, the heartland of Javanese culture. The RamayanaJavanese dance
Indonesian Tourism Offers All About Bali Island as Best Tourist Destinations
Bali Island is a small beautiful island and a part of Indonesia archipelago. It own the panorama and unique culture that make this island is exclusively than others. Furthermore, It’s location is in the tropical situation as Dream Island for a vacation. Bali Island has many places of interest such as rice paddies, beautiful panorama, volcanoes, tourism activities as well as attractions. In addition, it also has beautiful jungle, long sandy beaches, warm blue water, crashing surf and friendly people. Moreover, the local people presents daily community ritual and a lot of things make your holiday unforgettable. In Bali, the spirits is coming out to play in the moonlight. You can discover a festival and even a funeral throughout the island. Meanwhile, a good time of the day with sea breeze will complete your holiday dream.
Discovery Beautiful Bali Island
Bali is an Island of God in Paradise. Furthermore, it is a perfect tourist destination to enjoy the holiday with your family as well as collages. This tropical paradise has a unique blend of modern tourist facilities combined with wonderful shopping, a rich past as well as heritage sites. The Balinese people are proud of having preserved their unique Hindu culture against the advance of Islam, the dominant religion throughout Indonesia. This is still reflected in day-to-day life and can be seen in the numerous ceremonies. It is also the Balinese festivals in a magnificent temples as well as palaces. We can find some best surfing spots in the island on the western side. Meanwhile, the eastern side is a wonderful haven for families, with beautiful white sand beaches and gentle seas.
Bali in Stories
Bali Island according to the ancient inscription of Blanjong written 835 Saka or 913 century which is released by Sri Kesari Warmadewa Kingdom that Bali Island is called ‘Bali Dwipa’. It means Bali is come back, offering, sure and other words related to this meaning. Meanwhile, Dwipa mean island. The Bali Dwipa might be given by traditional merchants from India who the first time arrive in the island. They meet the local people full with the religious activities by using the offerings (Banten). Base on the event they called Bali is Bali Dwipa.
As an international tourist destination, Bali Island is a complete and unique place to visit. Here, all guests can enjoy the island through plenty of activities such as sightseeing, adventures, spa, culture lessons, yoga, cruises, golf or relaxation on the beach.
Bali from Other Views
According to the geographic, Bali Island is located in the tropical area and as other islands in Indonesia that Bali Island is consisted of the mountain area, coastal and sea. Its land is very fertile and own tropical climate so that this area is very precise as agrarian area.
Balinese people have been well known as the agrarian and friendly people. Meanwhile, they are holding the strong social life that existing up to now and become the fortress from unfavorable external influence pressure. In addition, they are very charm, warm and helpful.
CULTURE AND RELIGION
Most of the Balinese are Hindu while other are Muslim, Christian/catholic and Buddhist where they life in peace and love each other. We can see the religious activity ritual by Hinduism in Bali every day. Therefore, this island is more known as an island of heaven. Bali is featured by unique cultures that most adapted from the Hindu influence that are still exist in this new modern era.
As the eastern country and part of Indonesia , living in Bali is very simple and most of them are friendly people. However Balinese it self own special etiquette that you need to know before visiting the island. Furthermore, This simple etiquette is still running among the local people or community to respect each other.
Balinese people have a strong community system and well organization. Banjar is well organization community organizes every single part of region in Bali. Meanwhile, the top of its are village, district, and regency until province. » Furthermore
TRI HITA KARANA CONCEPT
Balinese Hindu has a strong concept in their life that is according on the balance of nature life. Many countries have adopted this living concept to keep secure the environment from the bad influence. » Furthermore