Bibliography Format Mla 7th

MLA Citation Examples

Based on the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016

Some General Rules

Works Cited List Examples

Need More Help?

For further guidance on MLA citations, please visit The MLA Style Center. You can also ask a librarian for help with citation-related questions. 

Need the 7th Edition?

See MLA Citation Examples: 7th Edition.


Some General Rules

In-Text Citations


What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work
(or a work that has no page numbers)

Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

If it is not possible to include this information in the text, follow the sentence where the citation needs to be made with an in-text citation containing only the name of the author.

In his article "Allston Gothic," local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

OR

A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents (Jackson).

A specific page

(Cortois 70)

If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Jacobs has argued this point (190-210).

Multi-volume set

(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors, below.



Authors

One author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Courtois, Charles A.

(Cortois 70)



Two authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Martin, Jonathan A., and Christopher Jackson.

(Martin and Jackson 127-28)



Three or more authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Fontela, Pablo, et al.

If a work has more than 2 authors, MLA gives you the option of listing only the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

(Fontela et al. 153-54)



Group author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Modern Language Association.

(Modern Language Association 111)



No authors listed

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

"Hints and Notions." The Decorator and Furnisher, vol. 6, no. 2, May 1885, pp. 61-68. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=www.jstor.org/stable/25584271.

List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

("Hints and Notions" 61)

In-text citations should include the title and the page number(s) of the text you are quoting or referring to, with the titles of articles in quotations, and the titles of books or Web sites italicized. In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in the in-text citation.



Titles

Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Please check the appropriate sample citation on this page to make sure you are using italics correctly.

Dates

With the exception of May, June and July, the names of the months must be abbreviated in MLA works cited lists as follows:

  • January = Jan.
  • February = Feb.
  • March = Mar.
  • April = Apr.
  • August = Aug.
  • September = Sept.
  • October= Oct.
  • November = Nov.
  • December = Dec.

Undated Sources: When the source you are citing has no publication date, simply omit that part of the citation. Do not write "No date" or "N.d.".

Source

Example

No date given

Jane Austen Society of Australia. "Sense & Sensibility." Jane Austen Society of North America. Map. www.jasna.org/info/images/map-ss-1200.jpg.



Volume and Issue Numbers

Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. In these cases simply follow the date of the magazine or journal with a period in your works cited list citation, omitting the volume number where necessary.

Source

Example

Journal volume and issue number available

Child and Family Behavior Therapy, vol. 26, no.1, 2004, pp. 88-96.

Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given

Journal of Family Counseling, 2004.



Page Numbers


Source

Example

Page range whose first number is over 100

125-35 (not 125-135)

3200-22 (not 3200-3222)

Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. This is done to minimize the length of works cited lists.

Online periodical where page numbers are not given

Persuasions, vol. 35, no. 1, 2014, www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/byrd.html.

Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.



Citing a Source within a Source

Scenario: You read an article by Robbins that cites, on page 270, another article by Wills. You want to cite Will's article, but you have not read Wills's article itself.

Works Cited List

In-Text Citation

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Robbins. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Wills's article.

Wills (cited in Robbins 270) notes that...

Your in-text citation gives credit to Wills and shows the source in which you found Wills's idea.

If Robbins directly quotes another author and you want to use that direct quotation, include the abbreviation "qtd. in." For example:

As Freud wrote, "He himself, however, had not noticed this glaringly obvious connection" (qtd. in Robbins 272).



DOIs and URLs

Use a DOI number if one is available. Otherwise use a URL (particularly a  permalink or stable URL, if one is available), and remove the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

Source

Example

DOI

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

URL

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

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Articles

Academic Journals:


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Free Web

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

In print

Jordan, Stephanie. "Mark Morris Marks Purcell: 'Dido and Aeneas' as Danced Opera." Dance Research, vol. 29, no. 2, 2011, pp. 167-213.

More info

Tip:

  • Include volume and issue number (example: vol. 23, no. 1) when both are available.

Magazines:

-Daily or Weekly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Updike, John. "Dreamy Wilderness." The New Yorker, vol. 84, no. 35, 3 Nov. 2008, p. 112. Academic OneFile, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.188512674&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Grossman, Lev. "Jhumpa Lahiri: The Quiet Laureate." Time, 8 May 2008, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1738511,00.html.

In print

Aviv, Rachel. "Captain of Her Soul: The Philosopher Martha Nussbaum's Emotions." The New Yorker, vol. 92, no. 22, 25 July 2016, pp. 34-43.

More info



-Monthly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Newman, Judith. "Funny Girl." Ladies Home Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, June 2014, pp. 42-47. MasterFILE Premier, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=96041993&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Brady, Heather. "The Well-hidden World of Whiskey Aging." National Geographic, 29 July 2016, www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/07/whiskey-distilling-production-entrepreneurs-market-science.

In print

Beard, Alison. "Life's Work." Harvard Business Review, vol. 93, no. 4, Apr. 2015, p. 116.

More info

Tip:

  • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Apr.-May 2003.

Newspapers


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Mewshaw, Michael. "David Foster Wallace, a Fan and Elegant Analyst of Tennis." Washington Post, 19 June 2016, p. B6. ProQuest News & Newspapers, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1797768833?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Michaels, Andrew. "Howard Police Teach Life Lessons to Youth Through Chess." Baltimore Sun, 23 Feb. 2016, www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/howard/columbia/ph-ho-cf-chess-club-hcpd-0225-20160222-story.html.

In print

Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times, 5 Sept. 1999, pp. A1+.

More info

Tip:

  • When an article appears on nonconsecutive pages (for example A1 and A6) give only the first page number followed by a "+" as shown above. Give the page number on which the material you've used appears in your in-text citation, for example: (Brown A6).

Encyclopedia Articles


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Myers, Kathleen Ann. "Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195148909.001.0001/acref-9780195148909-e-541.

More info



Book, Film and Product Reviews


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+. ProQuest, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/433471566?accountid=14580.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16. PsycARTICLES, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-22219-010&site=eds-live&scope=site.

In print

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16.

More info

Tip:

  • The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev.", and italics or other formatting done as appropriate for items reviewed and the source of the review itself.

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Books


Source

Works Cited List

Basic book

Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Alaska Northwest Books, 1993.

Edited book

Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. Chronicle Books, 1996.

Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.

Numbered edition other than the first

Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Writing About Writing: A College Reader. 2nd ed., Bedford/St. Martin's, 2014.

Revised edition

Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai'i. Rev. ed., U of Hawai'i P, 2006.

Multi-volume set

Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington. Princeton UP, 1962-63. 2 vols.

In-text citation:(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Chapter or article in an anthology

Toibin, Colm. "Send My Roots Rain: Gerard Manley Hopkins." Not Less Than Everything, edited by Catherine Wolff, HarperOne, 2013, 284-99.

If the piece being cited was previously published, give the original date of publication after its title. The page numbers of the chapter or article should follow publication information for the book in your citation.

More info

Note on publisher element:

  • MLA citation style no longer includes the publisher's city, only the publisher's name.
  • If the publisher's name includes "University" or "Press," abbreviate those, without periods, for example:
    • Princeton UP, 2014.
    • U of Pittsburgh P, 1994.

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E-Books


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Barkan, Leonard. Mute Poetry, Speaking Pictures. Princeton UP, 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=503029&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Free Web

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Arctic Prairies: A Canoe-Journey of 2,000 Miles in Search of the Caribou. C. Scribner's Sons, 1911. Project Gutenberg,www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6818.

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

Thompson, Kate. "Journal Writing as a Therapeutic Tool." Writing Cures: An Introductory Handbook of Writing in Counselling and Psychotherapy, edited by Gillie Bolton, Routledge, 2004, pp. 72-84. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=116959&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Library databases may include chapters from books. Information about the publisher of a book can often be found in the description of the chapter in the database. Author and publisher information may be omitted from your citation if it is not available.

More info



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Web Sites


Source

Works Cited List

Author is an individual

Inskeep, Steve. "In Iran, A Poet's 700-Year-Old Verses Still Set Hearts Aflame." NPR, 12 Feb. 2016, www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/02/12/466408554/in-iran-a-poets-700-year-old-verses-still-set-hearts-aflame.

The publisher of the Web site, NPR, goes after the title of the Web page.

Author is an organization

Poetry Foundation. "Paul Laurence Dunbar." 2016, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/paul-laurence-dunbar.

The publisher of the Web site, the Poetry Foundation, is used as the author because no individual author of the Web page content is named on the page.

More info



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Online Classroom Materials


Source

Works Cited List

Course module in UMUC online classroom

UMUC. "What Is Research?" Course module in UMUC LIBS 150 online classroom, Summer 2016, learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/147066/viewContent/6332908/View.

No official MLA format for citing online classroom materials exists. This is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

More info



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Technical and Research Reports


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. Mar. 2010, www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf.

In print

Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. United States Government Accountability Office, Mar. 2010.

More info



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Dissertations and Theses

MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following:

Dissertations


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Dissertation, U of Maryland, College Park, 2004. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/305175282?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005, rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1111184984.

In print

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005.

More info



Master's Theses


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Harzbecker, Joseph John. "Life and Death in Washington, D.C.: An Analysis of the Mortality Census of 1850." Master's thesis, U of Massachusetts, Boston, 1999. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304573667?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004, resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943.

In print

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004.

More info

Tip:

  • For Masters of Science theses, replace "MA" with "MS".

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Images

MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: if you are unable to cite the image that you need to using the formats below, please contact us for assistance.

Titled Image


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Martin, Agnes. Morning. 1965. Painting. Tate Gallery, London. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195335798.001.0001/acref-9780195335798-e-1302.

Free Web

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris, www.musee-orangerie.fr/en/artwork/ship-storm.

The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, 2006. p. 232.

More info



Untitled Image

If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Massachusetts Historical Society. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 17, 1879-1880, p. iii. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/25079540.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. Grossman, 1975. p. 202.

Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book's publication information.

More info

Tip:

  • If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

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Streaming Videos


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

McGregor, Wayne. "A Choreographer's Creative Process in Real Time." TED, June 2012. www.ted.com/talks/wayne_mcgregor_a_choreographer_s_creative_process_in_real_time.

More info



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Interviews and E-mail Messages


Source

Works Cited List

Interviews

Brown, Jane. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2006.

Smith, John. Telephone interview. 12 Aug. 2006.

Whiting, Jennifer. E-mail interview. 2-10 Dec. 2005.

To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates.

E-mail message

Doe, Jane. "Re: Why Poetry Matters." Received by John Smith, 1 Aug. 2016.

Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own. Finish with the date of the email.

More info



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MLA Formatting and Style Guide

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-11-15 10:07:19

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

Creating a Works Cited list using the eighth edition

MLA has turned to a style of documentation that is based on a general method that may be applied to every possible source, to many different types of writing. But since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may be found in several different sources, following a set of fixed rules is no longer sufficient.         

The current system is based on a few principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still gives examples of how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This process teaches writers a flexible method that is universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication, and required punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses, and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (just commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Author

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.  

A website should be in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu."Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks:

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me."Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 Mar. 2009.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books, or watched a television series on Netflix. You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Note: In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc., are no longer abbreviated.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

Version

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

Number

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal,vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Publisher

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive,  www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note: the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, a website whose title is the same name as its publisher, a website that makes works available but does not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, or JSTOR).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999.

Location

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book, or an article in journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.

The location of an online work should include a URL.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

A physical object that you experienced firsthand should identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Optional elements

The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of select optional elements that should be part of a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine.1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.

Date of access:

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

URLs:

As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

DOIs:

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the eighth edition

The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. For the most part, an in-text citation is the author’s name and page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses:

Imperialism is “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (Said 9).

or

According to Edward W. Said, imperialism is defined by “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (9).

Work Cited

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

Final thoughts about the eighth edition

The current MLA guidelines teach you a widely applicable skill. Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for any type of source. While the handbook still includes helpful examples that you may use as guidelines, you will not need to consult it every time you need to figure out how to cite a source you’ve never used before. If you include the core elements, in the proper order, using consistent punctuation, you will be fully equipped to create a list of works cited on your own.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

Entire Website

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2016.

Individual Resources

Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

 

Russell, Tony, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, 2 Aug. 2016.

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